Accueil English pages Articles written The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path - History of the al-‘Alawī Sufi Order
The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path - History of the al-‘Alawī Sufi Order
English - Articles written
Écrit par Omneya Nabil Muhammad Ayad   
Jeudi, 22 Mai 2014 00:00
Index de l'article
The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Literature Review
Martin Lings'' Work on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
Thesis purpose
Primary Sources
Historical brief on the French Colonialism in Algeria (1830-1900) and the role of the Sufi orders in Algeria
Brief Biography on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
A comprehensive list of all the written books of Shaykh al-‘Alawī
History of the al-‘Alawī Sufi Order
Chapter Two : The Historical Background of the Sufi Spiritual Stages in Major Works
The History of the Development of the Spiritual Stages in Major Sufi Works
1- The Spiritual Stage of Fear and Vigilant Awareness of God (al-Khashya wa-l- Murāqaba):
2- The Spiritual Station of Satisfaction and Submission (al-Riḍa wa-l- Taslīm)
3- The Spiritual Station of Reliance on God (al-tawakkul)
4- The spiritual station of Poverty (al-Faqr):
5- The spiritual station of Sincerity (al-Ikhlās)
6- The Spiritual Station of Love (Hubb)
7- The Spiritual Station of Oneness (al-Tawhīd)
Chapter 3 : The Sufi Spiritual Stages in the Work of Shaykh al-‘Alawī
1- The Spiritual Stage of Fear and Vigilant Awareness of God (al-Khashya wa-l- Murāqaba)
2-The Spiritual Station of Satisfaction and Submission (al-Rida wa-l- Taslīm)
3-The Spiritual Station of Reliance on God (al-tawakkul)
4-The spiritual station of Poverty (al-Faqr)
5-The spiritual station of Sincerity (Ikhlās)
6-The Spiritual Station of Love (Hubb)
7-The Spiritual Station of Oneness (al Tawhīd)
Conclusion
Bibliography
Notes
Toutes les pages

History of the al-‘Alawī Sufi Order

The above mentioned Sufi orders were the most influential Sufi orders in North Africa and had a deep effect on Algeria at the time of the French colonization. The most contemporary of the Sufi orders which was established as a culmination of a long history of Sufi orders in Algeria is al-‘Alawī Sufi order. This Sufi order was established by Shaykh Ahmad b. Mustafa al- al-‘Alawī (1869-1934) and was known for its organizational skills and ability to reach out to people. Since the dawn of its establishment, the order used the most modern technological means of communication such as issuing newspapers, printing books, conducting seminars, giving lectures, founding clubs and civil syndicates to spread the Islamic teachings in and out of Algeria.58

Shaykh al- al-‘Alawī established the very first newspaper in Algeria titled Lisān al-Dīn in 1923 and the issuance of an Arabic newspaper was needed at the time to fight back against aggression pointed at both the Islamic identity and the Arabic language. In 1927 Shaykh al-‘Alawī published another newspaper titled al-Balāgh al-Jazāirī in which a series of articles were written to raise the awareness of the Algerians against the issue of adopting the French nationality and the impermissibility of doing so under the French occupation. Also in this newspaper a number of pressing issues were addressed such as the issue of prostitution which was widespread in all the Algerian cities and villages with the blessings of the French colonial powers. The newspaper was not only concerned about internal Algerian issues but equally showed interest in Islamic issues outside its borders. For example the newspaper condemned the position of the Kemalists and their movement against the Ottoman caliphate. The late Algerian historian, Ahmad Tawfiq al-Medanī, commented on al-‘Alawī''s newspaper by praising its role in spreading the moderate Islamic teachings and reinforcing the Algerian national identity.59

Following the death of Shaykh al-‘Alawī, Shaykh ''Udda ibn Tunis took over the command of the ''Alawī Sufi Order and revived the publications of the ''Alawī Order. After three years of suspending the Balagh newspaper, Shaykh ‘Uddah ibn Tunis issued a magazine titled al-Murshid in 1946 to act as the voice of al-‘Alawī Sufi order and focused on different social and religious issues in the Arab and the Islamic world. The unique addition of this monthly magazine is that it was published in both Arabic and French to attract a wider readership. The magazine adopted a number of issues on which it focused such as the issue of Sufism and its true meaning, the importance of adhering to the right religious teachings and principles, exerting all efforts towards solving the unprecedented contemporary issues facing the Islamic world and the vitality of instilling the religious inspiration within the hearts of Muslims. Over a span of six years, more than 230 articles were published in the magazine in different social, religious and political issues in the Islamic world and henceforth these articles can very well be considered as historical documents registering a critical period in the history of Algeria.60

Al-‘Alawī Sufi order was successful in establishing numerous lodges in and out of Algeria and gained a huge crowd not only among Algerians but its popularity spread to places such as Europe, America, Asia and Africa. Al-‘Alawī Sufi order took a major interest in teaching Quran among various Islamic sciences along with conducting introductory meetings to teach people about Islam and its tolerant moderate teachings. These efforts paid off greatly as hundreds of people converted to Islam and acted as sincere advocates to its compassionate teachings. One of the effective ways which al-‘Alawī Sufi order used to spread Islamic teachings is its printing house in Mustaghānim in which a huge number of treatises, publications, religious books both in Arabic and French addressing the non Muslims are published and highly circulated.61



 
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