Accueil English pages Articles written The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path - Martin Lings'' Work on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path - Martin Lings'' Work on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
English - Articles written
Écrit par Omneya Nabil Muhammad Ayad   
Jeudi, 22 Mai 2014 00:00
Index de l'article
The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Literature Review
Martin Lings'' Work on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
Thesis purpose
Primary Sources
Historical brief on the French Colonialism in Algeria (1830-1900) and the role of the Sufi orders in Algeria
Brief Biography on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
A comprehensive list of all the written books of Shaykh al-‘Alawī
History of the al-‘Alawī Sufi Order
Chapter Two : The Historical Background of the Sufi Spiritual Stages in Major Works
The History of the Development of the Spiritual Stages in Major Sufi Works
1- The Spiritual Stage of Fear and Vigilant Awareness of God (al-Khashya wa-l- Murāqaba):
2- The Spiritual Station of Satisfaction and Submission (al-Riḍa wa-l- Taslīm)
3- The Spiritual Station of Reliance on God (al-tawakkul)
4- The spiritual station of Poverty (al-Faqr):
5- The spiritual station of Sincerity (al-Ikhlās)
6- The Spiritual Station of Love (Hubb)
7- The Spiritual Station of Oneness (al-Tawhīd)
Chapter 3 : The Sufi Spiritual Stages in the Work of Shaykh al-‘Alawī
1- The Spiritual Stage of Fear and Vigilant Awareness of God (al-Khashya wa-l- Murāqaba)
2-The Spiritual Station of Satisfaction and Submission (al-Rida wa-l- Taslīm)
3-The Spiritual Station of Reliance on God (al-tawakkul)
4-The spiritual station of Poverty (al-Faqr)
5-The spiritual station of Sincerity (Ikhlās)
6-The Spiritual Station of Love (Hubb)
7-The Spiritual Station of Oneness (al Tawhīd)
Conclusion
Bibliography
Notes
Toutes les pages

Martin Lings' Work on Shaykh al-‘Alawī

In Ling''s work, half of the book is dedicated to the biography of Shaykh al-‘Alawī and a lot of excerpts from the testimony of Shaykh al-‘Alawī''s doctor, Marcel Carret were included to give an indication of the personal dimension of Shaykh al-‘Alawī''s character and personal traits.5 The second half of the book is dedicated to discussing some themes of a major work of Shaykh al-‘Alawī titled al-Minaḥ al-quddūsiyya or the divine awards. This book is a commentary on a book in prose written by ‘Abd al-Wāhid Ibn ‘Ashir al-Fāsī (1582-1631) who was a famous Moroccan Sufi, Jurist and logician. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which deals with the Oneness of Being or al-Tawhîd, an issue which took a good portion of Ling''s book. Lings after that delved into the second section of the book which discusses the Islamic rituals and the inner meanings that would elevate these rituals from mere physical appearances to an ascending vertical journey to arrive at the final destination of entering the realm of divine presence in which the belief of the ghayb or the unseen transforms to real witnessing or mushāhada where one does not need reason or proof to the existence of God because he reached a level of a true encounter with Him. In this part of the book, Lings sufficed himself with explaining the inner spiritual meanings of the ritual purification and prayers.

The second of Shaykh al-‘Alawī''s books which Lings referred to is entitled "al-Unmudhaj al-farīd" or the Unique Archetype. In this book Shaykh al-‘Alawī explains in details the way to the full realization of the Oneness of God through the envelopment of all the heavenly scripture of the Quran in the point of the Basmalah and more precisely the point that is placed under the letter Bā. The point represents the secret of the Essence which is called the Oneness of Perception (Waḥdat al-shuhūd), and the letter Alif represents the One who is Alone or (Wahid al-wujūd). Then comes the letter Bā which represents the Supreme Spirit from which the rest of the letters came to existence.

Towards the end of Ling''s book, a special chapter is dedicated to an aspect of Sufism that was not extensively written about which revolves around the role of earlier prophets before the dawn of Islam and the resemblance that could be found between some Sufi saints and some earlier prophets. This shining prophetic radiance of pre Islamic prophets transfers its beams of lights to some Sufi saints so some affinity could be found with one or more of the prophets.

Lings ends his book with quoting some aphorisms from Shaykh al-‘Alawī ''s Ḥikmatu-hū or as called in French Sa Sagesse. In these aphorisms, Shaykh al-‘Alawī explains his Sufi paradigm in terms of the relationship between the Creator and the created and the differences between the rememberer of God and heedless. Regarding Shaykh al-‘Alawī''s aphorisms, I had the privilege of having a copy of the English translated rare manuscript of Shaykh al-‘Alawī which contains his aphorisms and was translated by Professor Saiyad Ahmad.6



 
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