Accueil English pages Articles written The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path - Notes
The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path - Notes
English - Articles written
Écrit par Omneya Nabil Muhammad Ayad   
Jeudi, 22 Mai 2014 00:00
Index de l'article
The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Literature Review
Martin Lings'' Work on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
Thesis purpose
Primary Sources
Historical brief on the French Colonialism in Algeria (1830-1900) and the role of the Sufi orders in Algeria
Brief Biography on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
A comprehensive list of all the written books of Shaykh al-‘Alawī
History of the al-‘Alawī Sufi Order
Chapter Two : The Historical Background of the Sufi Spiritual Stages in Major Works
The History of the Development of the Spiritual Stages in Major Sufi Works
1- The Spiritual Stage of Fear and Vigilant Awareness of God (al-Khashya wa-l- Murāqaba):
2- The Spiritual Station of Satisfaction and Submission (al-Riḍa wa-l- Taslīm)
3- The Spiritual Station of Reliance on God (al-tawakkul)
4- The spiritual station of Poverty (al-Faqr):
5- The spiritual station of Sincerity (al-Ikhlās)
6- The Spiritual Station of Love (Hubb)
7- The Spiritual Station of Oneness (al-Tawhīd)
Chapter 3 : The Sufi Spiritual Stages in the Work of Shaykh al-‘Alawī
1- The Spiritual Stage of Fear and Vigilant Awareness of God (al-Khashya wa-l- Murāqaba)
2-The Spiritual Station of Satisfaction and Submission (al-Rida wa-l- Taslīm)
3-The Spiritual Station of Reliance on God (al-tawakkul)
4-The spiritual station of Poverty (al-Faqr)
5-The spiritual station of Sincerity (Ikhlās)
6-The Spiritual Station of Love (Hubb)
7-The Spiritual Station of Oneness (al Tawhīd)
Toutes les pages


1 Martin Lings, A Sufi Saint of the Twentieth Century: Shaykh Ahmad al-‘Alawī, his Spiritual Heritage and Legacy.  3rd edition (Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 1993).  2 ibid.
3 Emile Dermenghem, Vies Des Saints Muslumans. 1st edition (Paris: Éditions Baconnier, 1940), 30.
4 Lings, A Sufi Saint of the Twentieth Century: Shaykh Ahmed al-‘Alawī , his Spiritual Heritage and Legacy.
5 ibid.,13-33.
6 Dr. Saiyad Nizammudin Ahmad is an Assistant Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies in the Department of Arab and Islamic Civilizations in the American University in Cairo. I want to express my deepest gratitude for the author who made the unpublished manuscript available to me on Nov. 13th. 2011.
7 All the primary sources that will be used for the purpose of this study are being downloaded for free in a PDF format from the official website of the Zāwiyat al-Tarīqah al-‘Alawiyah
8 Thomas Willing Balch, "French colonization in North Africa," The American Political Science Review. 3.4 (1909) : 539-540. Web. 22 Dec. 2012.
9 ibid 540.
10 Salah Mu’ayad al-‘Aqabi, al-Turuq al-Sufiyyah wa-l-Zawaya bi-l-Jazair (Beirut: Dar al-Buraq, 2002), 131-132. The Qadiriyya Sufi order is the first established Sufi order in the Islamic world and the oldest to be established in Algeria where it found a fertile soil to blossom especially under the Ottoman Empire. The name of this Sufi order was taken after Shaykh ‘Abdel Qader al-Jilani who was born in the city of Jilan in Persia in 1077 and then moved to Baghdad which was vibrant with luminary scholars, erudite jurists, and renowned traditionists along with legendary Sufi Shaykhs. In this scholarly environment Shaykh al-Jilani received his education which placed him among the top notch in his field. Shaykh al-Jilani became so popular that more than seventy thousands people attended his Sufi lectures. ‘Abd al-Mahmoud al-Jili, Nazarat fi -l- Tasawuf al-Islami, (Abu Dhabi: Mashyakhat al-Tariqa al-Sunniyya, 1998) 408.
11 ibid., 72-73.
12 Salah Muayad al-‘Aqabi, al-Turuq al-Sufiyyah wa - l- Zawaya bi -l- Jazar (Beirut: Dar al-Buraq, 2002), 143-145.
13 This Sufi order was established by Shaykh Abu al-Hassan ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar al-Shadhuli. He was born in Morocco in 593 H. and was well known for his strong hold in religious sciences and his mastership of Islamic scholarship. His mentor was the luminary Shaykh ‘Abd al-Salam ibn Mashish who directed him to go to Tunisia where he accompanied many great scholars and took Egypt as his final residence where he died in 656 H.
14 Salah Muayad al-‘Aqabi, al-Turuq al-Sufiyyah wa - l- Zawaya bi -l- Jazar, (Beirut: Dar al-Buraq, 2002). 149-152.
15 ibid 155
16 ibid., 157-158.
17 ibid., 182-184.
18 ibid., 185-186.
19 ibid., 196.
20 ibid., 187-188.
21 ibid., 195-196.
22 ibid., 253-255.
23 ibid., 13-33.
24 The biography written by Shaykh al-‘Alawī is available through his official website
25 Michel Valsan," Notes on the Shaikh al-‘Alawī ," Journal of Studies in Comparative religion vol. 5 no. 3 (1971).
26 Martin Lings, What is Sufism 3rd edition (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005), 123-124.
27 The list of books of Shaykh al-‘Alawī is published by the ''Alawi publishing house in Mustaghanim under the title of Manshurat al Maktabah al Diniyyah le al Tariqah al Sufiyyah al ''Alawiyyah.1987.
28 ibid., 14.
29 Manshurat 8.
30 ibid., 9.
31 ibid., 10.
32 ibid.
33 ibid., 11-12.
34 ibid., 12.
35 ibid., 13.
36 ibid., 14.
37 Ibid., 15.
38 ibid., 15.
39 ibid., 16.
40 ibid., 17.
41 ibid., 18.
42 ibid.
43 ibid., 19.
44 ibid.
45 ibid., 20.
46 ibid.
47 ibid., 21.
48 ibid., 22.
49 ibid., 23.
50 ibid., 24.
51 ibid.
52 ibid., 26.
53 ibid., 26.
54 ibid., 27.
55 ibid., 28.
56 ibid., 29.
57 ibid., 29.
58 ibid. 263.
59 ibid., 265-268.
60 ibid., 269-270.
61 ibid., 271-272.
62 EI2, "al-Harawī," (S. de Beaurecueil). His biographers are unanimous in praising his piety, the breadth of his knowledge in all branches of the religious sciences, and the indomitable fervour of his devotion to the Ḳurān, the Sunna. In the field of mysticism, he bared his soul in the Munādjāt and other writings in sadj or in verse, which are considered to be among the masterpieces of Persian literature; the Manāzil al-Sāirīn , a valuable spiritual guide, impresses by its originality, its conciseness and its masterly psychological analyses (the number of the commentators on this work alone places it in an eminent position in the history of Sūfism).
63 EI2, "al-Qushayrī," (H. Halm). He is a theologian and mystic. His great mystical tafsīr , the Latāif al-ishārāt, was composed before 410/1019; the Tartīb al-sulūk is an introduction to the practice of tasawwuf , and the famous Risāla (composed in 438/1045) is a most important compendium of the principles and terminology of Sūfism (analysed by R. Hartmann).
64 EI2, "al-Ghazālī”. He is outstanding theologian, jurist, and original thinker, mystic and religious reformer. He was one of the most prominent men in Bag hdād, and for four years lectured to an audience of over three hundred students. At the same time he vigorously pursued the study of philosophy by private reading, and wrote several books. In 488/1095, however, he suffered from a nervous illness which made it physically impossible for him to lecture. In this period of retirement at Damascus and Tūs al-Ghazālī lived as a poor ṣūfī, often in solitude, spending his time in meditation and other spiritual exercises. It was at this period that he composed his greatest work, Iḥyā ulūm al-dīn (“The Revival of the Religious Sciences”).
65 EI2, " Ibn al-Arabī," (A. Ateş). He is known as al-Shaykh al-Akbar. He was one of the greatest Ṣūfīs of Islam. Ibn al-Arabī was certainly the most prolific of all Sūfī writers. Many of Ibn al-Arabī’s books, both those written by himself and those owned by him, passed to Sadr al-Dīn al-Kūnawī , his disciple, who left them as waqf to the library which he founded at Konya; in spite of later neglect, many of these survive in the Yusuf Ağa Library at Konya and in other Turkish libraries; and in what follows, especial emphasis will be laid on these and other exceptionally authoritative manuscripts.
66 EI2, "Abu Madyan," (G. Marçais). He is a renowned Gnostic in North Africa. The place which he occupies amongst the most important figures in western Islam is not due, strictly speaking, to his writings; at least, his only surviving writings are "a few mystical poems, a waṣiyya (testament), and an aḳīda (creed)" (A. Bel). It is because of the memory of him handed down by his disciples, and the maxims attributed to him, that he has been considered worthy to be regarded as a ḳuṭb (pole), a g hawth (supreme succour), and a walī (friend of God). The maxims proclaim the excellence of the ascetic life, of renunciation of this world’s goods, of humility, and of absolute confidence in God. He used to say: "Action accompanied by pride profits no man; idleness accompanied by humility harms no man. He who renounces calculation and choice lives a better life". He often repeated this line: "Say: Allah! and abandon all that is material or has to do with the material, if thou desirest to attain the true goal".
67 EI2, "Ibn ‘Aṭā Allah," (G. Makdisi). Arab mystic, follower of the doctrines of the mystic al-Shādhilī (d. 656/1258) as a disciple of the mystic Abu ’l-Abbās Aḥmad b. Alī al-Anṣārī al-Mursī (d. 686/1287). Brockelmann (see Bibl.) lists twenty works by IbnAṭāAllāh, principally on mysticism and asceticism, of which six are in print and the rest in manuscript. By far the most celebrated of his works is a collection of maxims of a distinct beauty of expression, al-Hikam al-Aṭāiyya, with numerous commentaries down to modern times.
68 EI2, " Ibn ''Adjība," (J.-L. Michon). He is a Moroccan Ṣūfī of Sharīfian origin, was one of the most distinguished representatives of the mystical order of the Darḳāwa. His literary output was most prolific and it reveals a great pedagogic ability, in which the teaching of the faḳīh is harmoniously integrated in an original mystical experience, and in which exoteric knowledge ( al-ilm al-ẓāhir ) provides the basis for achieving esoteric knowledge ( al-ilm al-bāṭin ).
69 EI2, " Ibn al-Fāriḍ," (R.A. Nicholson- J. Pedersen). He is a celebrated Sufi poet. He led a life of a solitary devotee. The Diwan of Ibn al-Farid, though small, is one of the most original works in Arabic literature. Possibly the minor odes, which exhibit a style of great delicacy and beauty and a more or less copious use of rhetorical artifices, were composed in order to be sung with musical accompaniment at Ṣūfī concerts (Nallino, in RSO, viii, 17); in these the outer and inner meanings are so interwoven that they may be read either as love-poems or as mystical hymns.
70 EI2, " Ibn Manẓūr," (J.W. Fück). The author of the famous dictionary of Lisān al-Arab. His Lisān al-Arab (completed in 689/1290; printed Būlāḳ 1300-8 and 1349- ) is based on five earlier dictionaries.
71 EI2, " al-Kāshānī," (D.B. MacDonald). He is a celebrated Ṣūfī author. He was the author of a large number of works, several of which have been published. His Iṣṭilāḥāt al-Ṣūfīya , or Dictionary of the technical terms of the Sufies is of special interest because in the preface he states that it was written after he had finished his commentary on the Manāzil al-Sāirīn of al-Harawī in order to explain the Şūfī technical terms which occur but are inadequately explained in that work.
72 EI2, " al-Nūrī," (Annemarie Schimmel). He is Ṣūfī mystic, of Khurāsānī background. The language of al-Nūrī, called by Aṭṭār laṭīf ẓarīf , “fine and elegant”, is highly poetical, and a number of brief poems is attributed to him; the imagery of the heart as a garden which is fertilised, or else destroyed, by rain and in which laud and gratitude are the odoriferous herbs, prefigures Persian garden imagery. Al-Nūrī is called “the faithful one, ṣāḥib al-wafā , and “prince of hearts”, amīr al-ḳulūb , and, as a true love mystic, was one of the most remarkable companions of Dj unayd. who said at his death, “half of Ṣūfism is gone”.
73 EI2, " al-Tirmidhī," (Y. Marquet). He is a traditionalist. He preached esoteric knowledge interpreting Ḳurānic verses in the most fantastical manner, and approving of the in-depth interpretation of ḥadīth.
74 EI2, "al-Niffarī," (A.J. Arberry). Ṣūfī mystic who flourished in the 4th/10th century, Al-Niffarī’s literary reliquiae consist of two books, the Mawāḳif and the Mukhāṭabāt (ed. A.J. Arberry, London 1935).
75 EI2, " al-Tusī," (U. Rudolph). He is an important religious scholar of the 9th/15th century. He underlines that the rules of logic and the results of mathematics and astronomy are incontestable; should the statements of revelation be in contradiction with them, they must be interpreted allegorically. In the doctrine on the soul, too, al-Ṭūsī is a representative of philosophical notions (the soul lives on after death; spiritual enjoyments have precedence over physical pleasures, in both this world and the hereafter).
76 EI2, " Abū Tālib al-Makkī," (L. Massignon). He is a muḥaddith and mystic, head of the dogmatic madhhab of the Sālimiyya [q.v.] in Baṣra. His chief work is the Ḳūt al-Ḳulūb , Cairo 1310.
77 EI2, " al-Kalabādhī," (P. Nwiya). He is the author of one of the most celebrated manuals on Ṣūfism. Of the five or six works by al-Kalābādhī, two have come down to us, one of them unpublished and the other is Taarruf li-madhhab ahl al-taṣawwuf , a basic work for the understanding of Ṣūfism in the first three centuries of Islam (tr. A. J. Arberry, The doctrine of the Sūfis , Cambridge 1935). The work is divided into three parts. The first, historical, section defines the meaning of the word ṣūfī and gives a swift survey of the most important figures of Ṣūfism; the second part is apologetics, going back to the articles of the creed al-Fiḳh al-Akbar II to demonstrate the accord between the doctrine of the Ṣūfīs and Asharism (see Arberry, Sufism , 69); through using quotations from the Ṣūfīs and commenting on them, the third part sets out the major stages on the mystic path. The author frequently quotes al-Ḥallādj , indicating that he lived in an environment favourable to mysticism but one in which Ṣūfism had begun to deteriorate. According to the introduction, the book was written in response to this decay and with the intention of delineating true Ṣūfism.
78 EI2, " Sulamī," (G. Böwering). He is an important Ṣūfī hagiographer and Ḳurān commentator. Al-Sulamī was a prolific author who eventually employed his future biographer, Abū Saīd Muḥammad b. Alī al-Khashshāb (381-456/991-1064), as his attendant and scribe. He composed the long list of his works, amounting to more than a hundred titles, over a period of some fifty years from about 360/970 onwards. Some thirty of his works are known to be extant in manuscript; many have appeared in print. These writings may be divided into three main categories: Ṣūfī hagiographies, Ṣūfī commentaries on the Ḳurān, and treatises on Ṣūfī traditions and customs. Each of these categories appears to be represented by a major work.
79 ''Abd-l- Razāq al-Kāshānī, Sharḥ Manāzil al-Sarīn ed. Mohsin Bidarfar 3rd ed. (Qum: Shari''at publishing house, ND), 7,8, 9, 10, 13, 15.
80 ibid,. 18.
81 EI2, "Mulla Sadra," (D. MacEoin). He is a leading Iranian Shīī philosopher of the Ṣafawid period. Ṣadrā laid the basis for what was effectively a new school of theosophical Shīism, combining elements from several existing systems of thought to form a synthesis usually referred to as the “Transcendent Wisdom” (al-ḥikma al-mutaāliya). The ideas of this school, which may be seen as a continuation of the School of Iṣfahān of Mīr Dāmād and Shaykh-i Bahāī, were promulgated after Ṣadrā’s death by his pupils, several of whom became noted thinkers in their own right, including Mullā Muḥsin Fayḍ Kāshānī [q.v.] and Abd al-Razzāḳ Lāhid j ī. Although Ṣadrā’s influence remained limited in the generations after his death, it increased markedly during the 19th century, when his ideas helped inspire a renewed Akhbārī tendency within Twelver Shīism (Morris, Wisdom, Introd., 49). In the modern period, his works have been widely studied in Iran, Europe and America.
82 al-Kāshānī, Sharḥ Manāzil al-Sarīn, 22.
83 Ibn Manẓūr, Mu''jam Lisān al-‘Arab, vol 4 (Beirut: Dar Ihia al-Turath al-‘Arabī, 3rd ed, 1999), 105.
84 ibid., 280.
85 ''Abd-l- Razzāq al-Kāshānī, Mu''jam Iṣṭilāhāt al-Sufiyya (Cairo: Dar al-Manar 1st ed, 1992), 208-209.  86 ibid., 228.  87 EI2, " al-Tilmisānī," (M. Yalaoui). his piety, modesty and asceticism, plus his vast erudition in all branches of knowledge: exegesis (he wrote a commentary on the Fātiḥa ), Mālikī fiḳh (a commentary on the Mukhtaṣar of Khalīl b. Isḥāḳ) and mysticism (glosses on al-Ghazālī’s Iḥyā ).
88 Abū Ismā''īl al-Harawī, Manāzil al-Sārin ila-l haqq al-Mubīn vol 1. ed. Afīf al-Tilmisanī (Tunisia: Dar al-Turkī, 1989), 170.
89 EI2, "al-Djunayd," (A.J. Arberry). He is a celebrated Ṣūfī, nephew and disciple of Sari al-Ṣaḳaṭī, a native of Bag hdād, studied law under Abu Thawr, and associated with Hārith al-Muḥāsibī. Dj unayd reiterates the theme, first clearly reasoned by him, that since all things have their origin in God they must finally return, after their dispersion (tafrīḳ ), to live again in Him ( dj am ): and This the mystic achieves in the state of passing-away (fanā ). Of the mystic union he writes “For at that time thou wilt be addressed, thyself addressing; questioned concerning thy tidings, thyself questioning; with abundant flow of benefits, and interchange of attestations; with constant increase of faith, and uninterrupted favours” (Rasāil, fol. 3a-b).
90 Abū al-Qāsim al-Qushairī, al-Risala al-Qushayriyya (Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Tawfiqiya,ND), 262.
91 Mohyi al-Din Ibn ‘Arabī, al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya vol 13. ed. ''Uthmān Yahia (Cairo: al-Hia al-''Amma li-l Kitab, 1990), 610-611.
92 Al-Harawī, Manāzil al-Sarīn ila-l- haqq al-Mubīn, 71.  93 Al-Qushairī, al-Risāla al-Qushayriyya, 263.  94 EI2, "Dhū-l- Nūn, Abu ''l Fayd" (M. Smith). Dhu ’l-Nūn was a practical mystic, who describes in detail the journey of the soul on its upward way to the goal, and gives the Ṣūfī conception of the unitive life in God. He was the first to teach the true nature of gnosis ( marifa ), which he describes as “knowledge of the attributes of the Unity, and this belongs to the saints, those who contemplate the FaceM of God within their hearts, so that God reveals Himself to them in a way in which He is not revealed to any others in the world”.  95 ibid., 160.  96 Ahmed Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms trns. Victor Danner (Leiden: Brill, 1984), 39.  97Ahmed Ibn ‘Ajiba, Iqadh al-Himam fī Sharḥ al-Ḥikam (Cairo: Jawami‘ al-Kalim, 2005), 260.  98 Al-Harawī, Manāzil al-Sarīn ila-l- haqq al-Mubīn, 173.  99 Ibn Manzur, Mu''jam Lisān al-‘Arab vol 5, 235.  100 ibid., 342.  101 Al-Kāshānī, Mu''jam Iṣṭilāhāt al-Sufiyya, 243.  102 Ibn ‘Arabī, al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya vol 14., 260.  103 ibid., 261-263.  104 Abū Hamid al-Ghazāli, Iḥyā ‘Ulūm al-Dīn Vol.4 (Cairo: Al-Maktabah al-Tawfiqiya, ND), 479.
105 Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms, 49.  106 Ibn ‘Ajība, Iqadh al-Himam fī Sharḥ al-Ḥikam, 371.  107 ‘Umar Ibn al-Fāriḍ, Dīwān Ibn al-Fāriḍ (Cairo: Matba‘t al-Fajr al-Jadīd, 2006), 94.  108 Al-Harawī, Manāzil al-Sarīn ila-l haqq al Mubīn vol 1. , 225.  109 Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms, 39.
110 Ibn ‘Ajiba, Iqadh al-Himam fī Sharḥ al-Ḥikam, 252.  111 Ibn al-Fāriḍ, Dīwān Ibn al-Fāriḍ, 30.
112 Al-Harawī, Manāzil al-Sarīn ila-l- haqq al-Mubīn, 222.
113 Ibn al-Fāriḍ, Dīwān Ibn al-Fāriḍ, 33.
114 Al-Qushairī, al-Risala al-Qushayriyya, 265.
115 Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-‘Arab, 387. 116 Al-Kāshānī, Mu''jam Iṣṭilāhāt al-Sufiyya, 238-239.  117 Ibn ‘Arabī, al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya vol 13., 152-153.  118 ibid., 155-157.  119 Al-Qushairī, Principles of Sufism, 116-117.
120 Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms, 23.
121 Al-Qushairi, Principles of Sufism, 119.
122 ibid., 120-121.    123 Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms, 59.  124 Ibn ‘Ajība, Iqadh al-Himam fī Sharḥ al-Ḥikam, 496.  125 Al-Ghazalī, Iḥyā ‘Ulūm al-Dīn, 363-364.  126 Al-Harawī, Manāzil al-Sarīn ila-l- haqq al-Mubīn, 203.  127 Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-‘Arab, 299.  128 Al-Kāshānī, Mu''jam Iṣṭilāhāt al-Sufiyya, 279-280.  129 Ibn ‘Arabī, al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya, 263-264.  130 Al-Qushairi, al-Resāla al-Qushayriyya, 380.  131 ibid., 381- 382.  132 Al-Ghazāli, Iḥyā ‘Ulūm al-Dīn. Vol.4, 299.  133 Al-Harawī, Manāzil al-Sarīn ila-l- haqq al-Mubīn, 310.  134 Ibn ‘Ajiba, Iqādh al-Himam fī Sharḥ al-Ḥikam, 26.  135 ibid., 83.  136 Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-‘Arab. vol 4, 173.  137 Al-Kāshānī, Mu''jam Iṣṭilāhāt al-Sufiyya, 232.  138 Ibn ‘Arabī, al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya, 323-327.  139 Al-Qushairī, Principles of Sufism,187.  140 Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms, 25.  141 Ibn ‘Ajība, Iqadh al-Himam fī Sharḥ al-Ḥikam, 50.  142 Al-Harawī, Manāzil al-Sarin ila-l haqq al Mubīn, 181.  143 ibid., 182.  144 Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms, 41.  145 Al-Qushairī, Principles of Sufism, 187- 188.  146 ibid., 183.  147 Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms, 31.  148 Ibn ‘Ajība, Iqadh al-Himam fī Sharh al-Hikam, 127.  149 Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-‘Arab, 7.  150 Al-Kāshānī, Mu''jam Iṣṭilāhāt al-Sufiyya, 307- 308.  151 Ibn ‘Arabī, al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya, 322-323.  152 ibid., 325.  153 ibid., 325.  154 ibid., 326.  155 Al-Harawī, Manāzil al-Sarin ila-l haqq al-Mubīn, 389.  156 Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms, 34.  157 Ibn ‘Ajība, Iqadh al-Himam fī Sharḥ al-Ḥikam,183-184.  158 Abū al-Hassan al-Daylamī, ''Atf al-Alif al-Malūf ''ala allām al-Ma''tūf ed. Hassan al-Shafi''i and Joseph Norment Bill. 1st edition (Cairo: Dar al-Kitab al-Misri, 2007), 174.
159 EI2, "al-Hallādj," (L. Massignon- L. Gardet). He is a mystic theologian. His life, his teaching and his death throw light on a crucial period in the history of Muslim culture, and the interior experience which he describes can be considered a turning point in the history of taṣawwuf.
160 ibid., 181.  161 Al-Ghazālī, Ihya ‘Ulum al-Dīn, 446-447.  162 Al-Qushairī, al-Risāla al-Qushayriyya, 429-430.
163 EI2, “Samnūn," (B. Reinert). He is nicknamed al-Muḥibb “the Lover,” well-known Ṣūfī of the Bag hdādī school. Samnūn became famous for his love of God. In that, it is said, he followed his own peculiar approach and even placed the love of God above the knowledge of God (marifa). At any rate, he has added a new, emotionally active, dimension to Sarī’s idea that God, in order to measure the truth of the lovers’ pretentions with their steadfastness ( ṣabr ), puts them through well-nigh unbearable trials. In the ecstasy of love, he chafes his legs down to the bare bone; he aspires to fill the whole world with his cry of love. With his irrepressible temperament, Samnūn developed the heritage of his master into extreme forms of thought and behaviour in other respects, as well. Thus he advocated a remembrance of God ( dhikr ) in which everything but God is forgotten, so that all experiential moments are filled by it and one, thus, turns entirely into remembrance of God.
164 Al-Daylamī, ''Atf al-Alif al-Malūf ''ala allām al-Ma''tūf, 166.
165 Al-Qushairī, Principles of Sufism, 335.
166 Ibn ‘Ajība, Iqadh al-Himam fī Sharḥ al-Ḥikam, 597.  167 Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-‘Arab vol 15, 232.  168 Al-Kāshānī, Mu''jam Iṣṭilāhāt al-Sufiyya, 378.  169 Ibn ‘Arabī, al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya, 288-290.  170 Al-Qushairī, al-Risala al-Qushayriyya, 404-406.  171 Al-Ghazālī, Iḥyā ‘Ulūm al-Dīn, 344.  172 Ibn ''Attāillah, Sufi Aphorisms, 54.  173 ibid., 43.  174 EI2, "Abu Bakr," (W. Montgomery Watt). Abu Bakr was the first caliph after Muhammad. His caliphate of a little over two years was largely occupied in dealing with the ridda or ‘apostasy’. The great simplicity of his life, with its rejection of all wealth, pomp and pretension, became in later times a legend, though there is doubtless a kernel of truth.
175 Al-Qushairī, al-Risala al-Qushayriyya, 406.  176 Vincent J. Cornell, The Way of Abū Madyan: The Works of Abū Madyan Shu''ayb (Cambridge: The Islamic Texts  Society, 1996), 16.
177 ibid.
178 ibid., 29.
179 ibid., 28.  180 ibid., 33.  181 ibid., 13.  182 ibid., 37.  183 ibid., 36.  184 Ahmad Mustafa al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1(Mustaghānim: al-Matba‘ah al-‘Alawiyah, 2nd ed, 1989), 133.  185 ibid., 169.
186 EI2, " al-Shushtarī," (Maribel Fierro). He is a Ṣūfī of Muslim Spain and resident of Malaga and Grenada. His masters included Ibn Surāḳa al-Shāṭibī and other disciples of Abū Ḥafṣ Umar al-Suhrawardī. But most influential for al-Shushtarī was the philosopher and mystic Ibn Sabīn [q.v.], whom he met at Bidj āya in 646/1248 and five years later in Egypt and at Mecca. 187 ibid., 170-171.
188 ‘Umar Ibn al-Fāriḍ, Dīwān Ibn al-Fāriḍ (Cairo: Matba‘t al-Fajr al-Jadīd, 2006), 88. All Arabic poetry of Ibn al-Farid was translated by the writer of the thesis without resorting to outside English refrences.
189 This hadith was narrated on the authority of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab and Abu Huraira and was authenticated and related by Imam Muslim. The hadith was related as well by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Nasāī , Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah. Muslim, Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Iman, Chapter of Ma’rifat al-Iman. Vol 1, Hadith no. 8. Ed. Muhammad Fouad ‘Abd al-Baqi (Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turath, ND), 36. al-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Tirmidhi,chapter on Iman, vol. 5, hadith no 2610, ed. Ahmad Muhammad Shakir and Muhammad Fouad ‘Abd al-Baqi, 2nd edition (Cairo: al-Bab al-Halabi publishing house, 1975), 6. Abu Dawud, Sunan Abu Dawud, Kitab al-Sunna, Chapter on Qadar, vol. 4, hadith no 5934, ed. Muhammad Mohyi al-Din ‘Abd al-Hamid (Beirut: al-Maktaba al-‘Asriyya, ND), 223. al-Nasai, Sunan al-Nasai, Kitab al-Iman, chapter Na’t al-Islam, vol.8, hadith no. 4990, 2nd edition (Halab: Maktabat al-Matbu’at al-Islamiyya, 1986), 97. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad al-Imam Ahmad, Musnad ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, vol. 1, hadith no. 82. ed. Shu’ayb al-Arnaout and ‘Adil Murshid 1st edition (Cairo: Muasasat al-Risala, 2001), 244.
190 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1, 172  191 al-Baqarah 2:115  192 ibid., 173.  193 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1, 174-175.  194 ibid., 175.  195 ibid., 176.  196 ibid., 176-177.  197 ibid., 186.  198 ibid., 188.  199 ibid., 190.  200 ibid., 192-193.  201 ibid., 195.  202 ibid., 197.  203 Quran 50:16  204 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol 1, 9.  205 Ibid., 10.  206 ibid., 11.  207 ibid.  208 ibid., 12.  209 ibid.  210 Quran 2:115  211 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol 1,13.  212 ibid., 15.  213 ibid.  214 ibid.
215 ibid., 16.
216 Yunus 10:58
217 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1, 16.
218 EI2, " al-Shāfiī," (E. Chaumont). He is the founder, of the Shāfiī school. Al-Shāfiī remained in Medina as a pupil of Mālik until the latter’s death, a period of about ten years (Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, Manāḳib al-Imām al-Shāfiī, Cairo 1986, 45). In Egypt he lectured in the mosque of Amr—that al-Shāfiī’s teaching had its greatest impact; his principal disciples were Egyptians and subsequently Shāfiism competed successfully with Mālikism for supremacy in Egypt [see shāfiiyya]. It was here that al-Shāfiī composed the new version of his Risāla (the one which has survived) and the majority of the texts collected in the K. al-Umm.
219 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1, 17.
220 EI2, " al-Khattāb," (G Levi Della Vida- M Bonner). He is the second caliph. One of the great figures of early Islam, a driving force behind the early conquests and the creation of the early Islamic empire. Upon the death of the Prophet in 11/632, Umar played a central role in the events leading to the acclamation of Abū Bakr as caliph [see al-saḳīfa]. During Abū Bakr’s caliphate, Umar remained close to the centre of power, advocating hard-line positions which the caliph did not always adopt. Upon Abū Bakr’s death in 13/634 he achieved the caliphate in his own right. Umar’s other accomplishments are said to have included the creation of the office of ḳāḍī [q.v.], the new calendar which dated from the hidj ra [see tarīkh. I. l. iii], and a great number of religious and civil ordinances regarding prayer, pilgrimage, fasting (see Ḥadj; ramaḍān ; Ṣalāt ; Ṣawm ; tarāwīḥ ), penal law and indeed nearly every conceivable area.
221 ibid., 18.
222 ibid., 19.
223 ibid., 20.
224 Quran 2:273
225 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1, 20.
226 ibid., 21.
227 ibid.
228 ibid., 22.
229 ibid., 23.
230 ibid.
231 ibid., 25.
232 ibid.
233 ibid., 52.
234 ibid., 52-53.
235 ibid., 53.
236 ibid.
237 EI2, " Ma''ruf al-Kahrkhī" (R.A. Nicholson- R.W.J. Austin). One of the most celebrated of the early ascetics and mystics of the Bag h dād school. He himself was an important influence on another famous Ṣūfī of the earlier period, Sarī al-Saḳaṭī [q.v.], who was in turn the teacher and master of one of the most famous exponents of Ṣūfism, al-D j unayd [q.v.].
238 ibid., 54.  239 ibid., 57.
240 ibid.  241 Abū Abū Isma''il al-Harawī , Manazil al-Sarin ila-l haqq al Mubīn T. [The Stages of the Wayfarer in the Path to God T.] vol 1. ed. Afīf al-Tilmesanī (Tunisia: Dār al-Turkī, 1989) 63.
242 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1, 67.
243 ibid., 75.
244 ibid., 76.
245 ibid., 79.
246 EI2, "Alī b. Abū Tālib," (L. Veccia Vaglieri). He is the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and fourth caliph, was one of the first to believe in Muḥammad’s mission. Alī was a valued counsel lor of the caliphs who preceded him; but although it is probable that he was asked for advice on legal matters in view of his excellent knowledge of the Qurān and the sunna. When Ut h mān was killed the Umayyads fled from Medina and the opposition remained masters of the situation. Since Alī was the person for whom they had most respect, he was invited to succeed to the caliphate. Alī had hopes of regaining the allegiance of the governor of Syria by opening negotiations with him, but in vain. Muāwiya demanded the surrender of the murderers of Ut h mān in virtue of a verse of the Ḳurān (xvii, 32/35) which forbids the slaying of any person save for just cause (iliā bi ’l-ḥaq), at the same time according the right of vengeance in the case of anyone slain unjustly ( maẓlūm an ) to his walī , i.e. his near relative. Muāwiya maintained that Ut h mān had been killed unjustly; consequently, he proposed to exercise the right accorded by God. In the meantime, he would hold to his refusal to pay homage to Alī. The conflict continued and ended with the assassination of Ali in 40 H.
247 ibid.  248 EI2, " Abd al-Ḳādir al-Djīlānī," (W. Braune). Ḥanbalite theologian, preacher and Ṣūfī, who gave his name to the order of the Qādiriyya,. Abd al-Ḳādir lived at a time when ṣūfism was triumphant and expanding. In the century preceding him a conflict, that had existed long before, assumed an acute form and became the concern of every individual. The consciousness of the individual as well as the whole of society was torn by the breach between secularism, religiously indifferent or religious only in a conventional way, on the one hand, and an intellectualist religion, at odds over theological doctrine, on the other. Abdal-Ḳādir became one of the best known mediators in Islam.
249 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1, 83-84.  250 ibid., 94.  251 ibid., 97.  252 ibid., 102.  253 ibid., 103.  254 ibid., 104.  255 ibid., 104.  256 ibid., 98.  257 ibid., 98-99.  258 ibid., 101.  259 ibid., 107.  260 ibid., 108.  261 ibid., 109.  262 ibid., 109-110.  263 ibid., 111-112.  264 ibid., 112.  265 ibid., 112-113.  266 ibid., 114.  267 ibid., 115.  268 Al Naml 27:62  269 ibid., 115.  270 EI2, "al-Shadhilī," (P. Lory). one of the great figures in the Sūfism. His teachings launched a tarīqa which gave birth to numerous, dynamic ramifications. These developed and have constituted a mystical tradition very widespread in North Africa and equally present in the rest of the Islamic world, as far as Indonesia.
271 ibid., 116.  272 ibid., 117.  273 ibid., 118.  274 ibid., 118-119.  275 ibid., 125.  276 ibid.  277 ibid 128  278 Ahmed Mustafa al-‘Alawī, Hikmatu- hu Sa Sagesse. trns. Ahmad, Saiyad. (Mustaghānem: al-Matba‘ah al-‘Alawiyah) Unpublished English edition, 17. Aphorism no. 13.
279 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1, 129-130.  280 al-‘Alawī, Hikmatu- hu Sa Sagesse, 12. Aphorism no 8.  281 al-‘Alawī, al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya vol. 1, 131.  282 ibid., 135.  283 ibid., 136.  284 ibid., 137.  285 ibid., 138.  286 Ibid., 139.  287 Ibid., 140.  288 Ibid., 149.  289 al-‘Alawī, Hikmatu- hu Sa Sagesse, 18. Aphorism no. 14.  290Abū al-Qasim al-Qushairī. al-Risala al-Qushayriyya. (Cairo, al-Maktabah al Tawfiqiya,ND) 406.  291 Dr. Saiyad Nizammudin Ahmad is an Assistant Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies in the Department of Arab and Islamic Civilizations in the American University in Cairo.  292 EI2, "Abd al-Karīm al-Djīlī," (H. Ritter). He is a Sufi mystic who wrote about thirty books and treatises, of which al-Insān al-Kāmil is the best known and had several printed editions in Cairo.








The American University in Cairo
The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path
MA Thesis – Dept. of Arab and Islamic Civilizations
By Omneya Nabil Muhammad Ayad
Dr. Saiyad Ahmad
16th December, 2013

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