Accueil English pages Articles written The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path - Chapter Two : The Historical Background of the Sufi Spiritual Stages in Major Works
The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path - Chapter Two : The Historical Background of the Sufi Spiritual Stages in Major Works
English - Articles written
Écrit par Omneya Nabil Muhammad Ayad   
Jeudi, 22 Mai 2014 00:00
Index de l'article
The Contemporary Sufi Heritage of Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Mustafa al-‘Alawī : The Seven Spiritual Stages of the Sufi Path
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Literature Review
Martin Lings'' Work on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
Thesis purpose
Primary Sources
Historical brief on the French Colonialism in Algeria (1830-1900) and the role of the Sufi orders in Algeria
Brief Biography on Shaykh al-‘Alawī
A comprehensive list of all the written books of Shaykh al-‘Alawī
History of the al-‘Alawī Sufi Order
Chapter Two : The Historical Background of the Sufi Spiritual Stages in Major Works
The History of the Development of the Spiritual Stages in Major Sufi Works
1- The Spiritual Stage of Fear and Vigilant Awareness of God (al-Khashya wa-l- Murāqaba):
2- The Spiritual Station of Satisfaction and Submission (al-Riḍa wa-l- Taslīm)
3- The Spiritual Station of Reliance on God (al-tawakkul)
4- The spiritual station of Poverty (al-Faqr):
5- The spiritual station of Sincerity (al-Ikhlās)
6- The Spiritual Station of Love (Hubb)
7- The Spiritual Station of Oneness (al-Tawhīd)
Chapter 3 : The Sufi Spiritual Stages in the Work of Shaykh al-‘Alawī
1- The Spiritual Stage of Fear and Vigilant Awareness of God (al-Khashya wa-l- Murāqaba)
2-The Spiritual Station of Satisfaction and Submission (al-Rida wa-l- Taslīm)
3-The Spiritual Station of Reliance on God (al-tawakkul)
4-The spiritual station of Poverty (al-Faqr)
5-The spiritual station of Sincerity (Ikhlās)
6-The Spiritual Station of Love (Hubb)
7-The Spiritual Station of Oneness (al Tawhīd)
Conclusion
Bibliography
Notes
Toutes les pages

Chapter Two : The Historical Background of the Sufi Spiritual Stages in Major Works

Before examining the work of Shaykh al-‘Alawī on the subject of the spiritual stages of the Sufi path, it would be beneficial to examine four main sources of reference which represent major Sufi works on the subject of the spiritual stages of the divine path in order to have a clear historical background on the development of the spiritual stages until the time of Shaykh al-‘Alawī. The four main references are the book of Manāzil al-Sarīn ila-l- haqq al-Mubīn by Abū Ismāīl al-Harawī (d.481H. 1089 CE)62, al-Risāla al-Qushayriyya by Abū al-Qāsim al-Qushairī (d. 465 H. 1072 CE)63, Iḥyā ‘Ulūm al-Dīn by Abū Hamid al-Ghazālī (d. 505 H. 1111 CE)64 and al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya by Muḥyī al-Dīn ibn ‘Arabī (d. 638 H.1240 CE)65

The seven spiritual stages which would be the focus of this chapter and the coming one are Fear and Vigilant Awareness of God, Satisfaction and Submission, Reliance on God, Poverty, Sincerity, Love and the Oneness of God. The reason for choosing these specific seven stages is because Shaykh al-‘Alawī in his book entitled al-Mawād al-Ghaythiyya based himself on these seven spiritual stages which he deducted from the aphorisms of Shaykh Shu‘ayb Abū Madyan (d. 594 H. 1197 CE)66 who was tackling the issue of the spiritual stages in his book entitled Uns al-Wahīd wa Nuzhat al-Murīd.

For further illustration of these spiritual stages, we will use selected citations from the book of al-Ḥikam al-‘Attāiyya for Shaykh Ahmed Ibn ‘Attāillah (d. 709 H. 1309 CE)67 with the commentary of Shaykh Ahmed Ibn ‘Ajība (d. 1224 H. 1809 CE)68 in his book Iqādh al-Himam fī Sharḥ al-Ḥikam. Also we will use references from the book entitled ‘Atf al-Alif al-Malūf ‘ala allām al-Ma‘tūf by Shaykh Abū al-Hassan al-Daylamī. Frequent citation of the Dīwan of ‘Umar Ibn al-Fāriḍ (d. 632 H. 1235 CE)69 will be of use as well.

Before delving into the Sufi explanation of the different terms used for identifying various spiritual stages, it would be of benefit to explore its linguistic origin and meaning in the Arabic dictionaries. The dictionary that will be used throughout the chapter is Mu''jam Lisān al-‘Arab by Ibn Manẓūr (d. 711 H. 1311 CE)70. It would be of further benefit to define different Sufi terms according to the Sufi dictionary to compare any possible variations from its original meaning or usage in the Arabic linguistic dictionaries. The Sufi dictionary that will be referenced is Mu''jam Iṣṭilāhāt al-Sufiyya by ''Abd-l- Razāq al-Kāshānī (d. 887 H. 1482 CE)71.



 
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